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History

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ARCHITECTURE OF THE FORTIFICATION SYSTEM

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The second half of XIX and early XX century is a tipping period in the history of fortification. Then came a transition from modern fortification that appeared through the polygon and bastion system to modern fortification that means distributed. In this period fortification is particularly highly developed on the territory of Poland. This was the result of the political situation in the country, that remained under the protections of Austria, Prussia and Russia, and the deterioration of relations between the former allies.

Strategic territory important manoeuvre space for the expected war was Galicia, being under the protection of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy. From there, heaved up on this territory fortifications, the construction of mainstream contemporary European art of defence, recognized today as a model of the fortifications of the time.

Cracow was incarnate in Galicia in 1846, after thirty-one years in possession, at the Congress of Vienna, the status of "free, independent and strictly neutral city". Was then under the domination of the Habsburg monarchy. Taking into account the location it was the best strategic point for base camp-fortress. Commission of Hess created a plan according to which the construction of fortification of Cracow had to develop, on the Foundation of the fortifications of Kosciuszko from 1794.

So here, in 1849 Austrians with a large scope and in large scales began development of strengthening of Cracow with view of transformations him in a fortress. The first stage of construction of Fortress Cracow lasted six years and had on an aim development of strengthening on foot-hill also converting Wawel hill, towering cytadel. As a result the system of fortifications with Wawel Castel in the middle also by four armed forts: Luneta Grzegorzki from the east, Kosciuszko Fort from the west, Krakus Fort from the south and the Luneta Warszawska from the north.

1849 – 1856. The construction of the Luneta Warszawska

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Fort 12 the Luneta Warszawska was erected in 1849-1856 as a modern brick defensive building, fort redit. Presented the north outpost of the defensive fortifications of Cracow and had the task of defending the outposts of Warsaw Tract (now 29 Listopada street) and flat areas of possible approach of the enemy from the borders of the Russian Empire, known as the fortress front.

1888-1890 - Modernization of the Fort 12 - Bastion IVa

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The development of the internal infrastructure of the fortress led to the leveling of Bastion IV and the inclusion of the Luneta Warszawska in the core embankment with a new designation, Bastion IVa. In the next years, the fort was constantly modernized. There have been a number of changes, the main of which is the installation of crossbars for installation 14 division on the main shaft, new entry ramps, dismantling of the eastern gate and partition elevator.

1890 – 1909 - New functions of the Fort

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With the development of new forms of the armed struggle gradually weakened the fort's defense capabilities and the urban development of Cracow led to a change its function. Next modernisations was carried out in the 90-en of the XIX century - were erected the capitals and the redist artillery deck, created a  training ground and built storage buildings on the fort. In these years fort executed functions mainly a warehouse. The new task was to protect the railway junction and freight forwarding of the fort.

1910 – Construction of the tradytor

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The only serious reconstruction of the Fort was built in 1910 (after two years of construction), concrete artillery tradytor, accommodated in the corner of the left shoulder and neck of fort, designed to defend of the Warsaw-Vienna railway station and then the Krowodrza station.

1914 – Re-mobilization of the Fort

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During the First World War Fort was again prepared for defense. After regaining independence in 1919 it was taken over by the Wax Property Agency for storage purposes, most likely until 1925. Then there was a branch of the so-called prison of St. Michael (located at St. Senate 3) that since the second half of the twenties acted as the main prison of the criminal investigation. Bastion IVa formally functioned first as a Prison and later a prison. At the same time premises in redicie was converted for the purpose and adapted to house detainees. Bastion IVa functioned formally first as the prison and later the penal institution. At the same time, the rooms in the redirects were converted into targets and adapted to detain the prisoners.

1940-1950 – Martyrological past of fort

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Unknown, when exactly Germans began to use Fort to the prison necessities. Definitely in 1944 Bastion IVa performed the duty of military arrest of Wehrmacht (Kriegswehrmachthaftanstalt) located in the then Benzstrasse 14, and after the war in 1945-1950 carried out the role of prison of Establishment of Safety. In 80-e years in one of the rooms of the Fort were found the inscriptions, the authors of which were concluded after world war II, the soldiers of the National Army and National Forces. There are many inscriptions and drawings of historic value on the walls.

after 1950 – The ancient walls, in the hands of the Ministry of Internal Affairs

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After 1950 fort became a warehouse of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. For many years the monument has undergone a deepening devastation - no importance was given to its historical character. The deteriorating technical condition of the building was influenced by humidity, wild growth and its exploitation. Since 1993 the building was occupied by warehouses and premises of trading companies.

2007 – Fort Luneta Warszawska was declared as a relic

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In June 2007, the Fort Luneta Warsawska was entered in the register of relic.

2013 – Repair of a 160-year-old fort gate

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The 160-year-old gate of the fort was renovated as authentic XIXth-century gates with remain engraved inscriptions of the soldiers of the KBW (Internal Security Corps).

2015 - A new investor takes care of the relic

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Fort Luneta Warszawska found a new investor - the company Luneta Warszawska Fort, which for the main purpose set revitalized the relic. The new investor took on a difficult task because the project required a particular approach, not only due to the size of the building and its difficult technical condition, but also due to the requirements and restrictions of the monument conservator and his martyrological past.

2016 – Youth shelter in historic walls!

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The project of adaptation of the fort has been made to the new function without disturbing the historic character of the building. In the project of reconstruction of Luneta Fort, the main idea of the investor was to save from destroying the cultural heritage and restore it to its former glory. Adaptation of the relic to the hostel has created a new, attractive public space and breathe life into old historic walls.

Now - prosecutions of creation of museum

The works related to introduction of museum in a place of particular historical value, where in the past was located the prison of the Gestapo and establishment of safety. In one of the rooms, the walls are preserved inscriptions and drawings, the authors of which were the soldiers of the AK and the National Armed Forces. There is no doubt that it must be saved for future generations. Exactly in this part of fort will be a museum of State Army and history of the Fortress Krakow, which will be preserved by conservators and historians of the Institute of National Remembrance.

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